PETROGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIAGENESIS IN SANDSTONES OUTCROPS OF THE NORTHERN MACEIÓ FORMATION: IMPLICATIONS IN RESERVOIR QUALITY

M. S. C. Tenório, Z. V. Batista, G. M. D. Fernandes

Abstract


The acquisition of geological data is of fundamental importance for the study of areas potentially relevant to the occurrence of petroleum systems. In this context, the development of research in outcropping rock formations has proven to be a potential method to investigate the geology of the geological unit studied in subsurface. One of several examples found in Brazil are the outcrops Barreiras do Boqueirão and Praia de Japaratinga, belonging to the Maceió Formation, located in the northern coast of Alagoas State. The Maceió Formation has the lowest cretaceous sedimentation record within the Alagoas Basin. This sedimentation, present almost in the entire basin, is located mainly in its subsurface. This geological unit is composed of several lithologies, including a turbiditic sequence predominantly formed by shales, sandstones and conglomerates. This environment makes it possible the occurrence of a petroleum system. Our research group chose to investigate this environment because turbiditic sandstones are excellent petroleum reservoirs, and they have a great economic relevance in the Brazilian petroleum scenario. To develop this research, a petrographic characterization of the Maceió Formation sandstones was conducted to help determine the compositional and diagenetic aspects of these rocks and infer the influence of diagenetic processes on the quality of these sandstones as reservoirs. The petrographic analysis showed that the studied sandstones can be classified as arkose and quartzenite, present moderate porosity and good permeability, observed through the predominant presence of floating contacts between the grains. The porosity is predominantly primary intergranular, averaging 15%, but secondary porosity by fracture and dissolution of primary grains also occurs. The sandstones of the Maceió Formation are poorly and moderately selected, with angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded grains, showing low to medium textural maturity, which may also influence the quality of the reservoir, impairing the primary porosity in the samples. The three diagenetic stages were identified as: eodiagenesis, mesodiagenesis, and telodiagenesis. The diagenetic processes found were: mechanical compaction, beginning of chemical compaction, clay infiltration, pyrite cementation, grain dissolution, chlorite cementation, quartz sintaxial growth, and mineral alteration and replacement. Mineral replacement was a phenomenon observed quite expressively in the samples analyzed. This event was evidenced, particularly, by the substitution of muscovite and feldspar for kaolinite, the alteration of biotite was also identified in the samples. Therefore, one can infer that the diagenetic processes had little influence on the reduction of the original porosity in the samples studied. In general, considering all the analyses performed in this research, one can see that the sandstones of the Maceió Formation (northern portion) present a good reservoir quality.

Keywords


petrographic characterization; diagenetic aspects; reservoir quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5419/bjpg2021-0004